Random phrase…

kana ke panu kuhakoyo ka’e tsumpako yotemyaye
chief O cake cook-AG-POSS toward buy-AG give-CAUS-PST
The boss made the cook give a cake to the customer.

This is making me reexamine how direct and indirect objects work.



며가 거 나 겨 갸 나로 마 노야 이타 마라하바
어, 나 나로 마 노야여 우마 아여 타 마라하라

myeka ke na kye: “kya nalo ma noya! itla malahapa!”
e, na nalo ma noyaye uama aye tla malahala

voice O 1sg it.was.said IMP smile and be.happy this bad-AUG-POT
pause 1sg smile and be.happy-PST then past 4sg bad-AUG-become

A voice said to me: “Smile and be happy! Things could be worse!”
So I smiled and was happy. And things got worse.

Vulcan proverb

tla ke yanonketle kapya yatli tla ke yesa tloyatli
4sg O avoid-NEG-REL accept if.X.then.Y 4sg O peace discover-FUT
In accepting the inevitable, one finds peace. – Tuvok, VOY: “Once Upon a Time”

NB: tla, the 4th person singular is often used as an impersonal pronoun, or generic antecedent.

Street Calligraffiti

El Seed

“And the sun rose behind the centuries” in Tunis, Tunisia

“Open your heart” in Paris, France

With recent events, it’s important to remember that xenophobia is not uniform across cultures or even communities. Inherent in our humanity is a sliver of society that seeks to demolish and diminish all things hopeful. They do not represent the whole, or even a majority. They represent themselves. Ideology, while pervasive, is a spectrum, not an absolute.

Thank you.

“You’ve received 1,000 likes on Footballbats!”

This was in my notifications this morning. Thank you to everyone that reads and comments on my blog. It means a lot to me that people appreciate my musings and work.


Kala calligraphy

“kala” in Naua calligraphy.

Over the hill…

Does your language make the difference between an adposition phrase/case that complements and ones that modify a noun phrase?

Yes. Kala uses locational verbs, or more precisely, adpositions that also that also function as verbs.

나 거 자가 우어터 야마히 가어라여
na ke tsaka ua’etle yamahi ka’elaye
1sg O house be.above-REL hill toward-MOT-PST
I went to the house (that is) over the hill.

나 가어 자가 거 야마히 우어라여
na ka’e tsaka ke yamahi ua’elaye
1sg toward house O hill above-MOT-PST
I went over the hill to the house.